ClimateCentral: The new year has only just begun, but we’ve already recorded our first days with average carbon dioxide levels above 400 parts per million, potentially leading to many months in a row above this threshold, experts say.
EU JRC: 2013 saw global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and cement production reach a new all-time high. This was mainly due to the continuing steady increase in energy use in emerging economies over the past ten years. However, emissions increased at a notably slower rate (2%) than on average in the last ten years (3.8% per year since 2003, excluding the credit crunch years).
This slowdown, which began in 2012, signals a further decoupling of global emissions and economic growth, which reflects mainly the lower emissions growth rate of China. China, the USA and the EU remain the top-3 emitters of CO2,
Climateprogress: On Monday, scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Mauna Loa observatory in Hawaii told Climate Central that June would be be the third month in a row where, for the entire month, average levels of carbon dioxide were above 400 parts per million (ppm). In other words, that’s the longest time in recorded history that this much carbon dioxide has been in the atmosphere.
ClimateCentral: The first measurement in excess of 400 ppm was made on May 9, 2013. This year, the level rose above that mark a full two months earlier, and has remained above 400 ppm steadily since the beginning of April. While the milestone is largely a symbolic one, it does illustrate how far emissions have risen from their preindustrial levels of 280 ppm.
USA to day: For the first time in human history and likely for the first time in at least 800,000 years, the average level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Earth’s atmosphere topped 400 parts per million for an entire month.
Guardian: Burning remaining fossil fuel reserves will release carbon dioxide that will trigger different warming scenarios
Cartogram of national climate contributions Here, the geographic area of each country has been scaled such that the coloured area is proportional to its climate contribution
Universite Concordia: When it comes to global warming, there are seven big contributors: the United States, China, Russia, Brazil, India, Germany and the United Kingdom. A new study published in Environmental Research Letters reveals that these countries were collectively responsible for more than 60 per cent of pre-2005 global warming. Uniquely, it also assigns a temperature-change value to each country that reflects its contribution to observed global warming.
The study was conducted at Concordia under the leadership of Damon Matthews, an associate professor in the Department of Geography, Planning and Environment. In a straight ranking, the U.S. is an unambiguous leader, responsible for a global temperature increase of 0.15 C. That’s close to 20 per cent of the observed warming.
China and Russia account for around eight per cent each; Brazil and India seven per cent; and Germany and the U.K. around five per cent each. Canada comes in tenth place, right after France and Indonesia. Although it may seem surprising that less industrialized countries, including Brazil and Indonesia, ranked so highly, their positions reflect carbon dioxide emissions related to deforestation.
National contributions to observed global warming
H Damon Matthews et al 2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 014010 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/1/014010
Guardian: Delaying action on global warming will only increase the costs and reduce the options for dealing with its worst effects, according to a draft report by UN experts.
The final draft of the report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says global warming will continue to increase unless countries shift quickly to clean energy and cut emissions. A leaked version circulating with media outlets and news agencies says that despite national policies and international efforts emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that are warming the planet grew 2.2% per year on average between 2000 and 2010, compared with 1.3% per year from 1970 to 2000.
more: Reuters: World may have to suck gases from air to meet climate goals-UN http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/01/15/climate-solutions-idUSL5N0KP1OI20140115
Yesterday, Oil Change International (OCI) published its great new interactive graphic that shows that fossil fuel reserves continue to grow, whereas the scientists are telling us that we can burn less and less carbon. The graphic was also published in The Guardian newspaper.
The OCI analysis shows that fossil fuel companies gained access to more than twice as much in fossil fuels as they produced between 2007 and 2011. The reality is that less than a third of the remaining reserves can be safely burned.
The graphic states “Scientists agree that at least two thirds and possibly more of the world’s current, proven reserves of oil, gas, and coal must not be burned if we are to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.”
A comparison of the 58 top CO2 emitting nations
Germanwatch: The Climate Change Performance Index is an instrument supposed to enhance transparency in international climate politics. Its aim is to encourage political and social pressure on those countries which have, up to now, failed to take ambitious actions on climate protection as well as to highlight countries with best-practice climate policies. On the basis of standardised criteria, the index evaluates and compares the climate protection performance of 58 countries that are, together, responsible for more than 90 percent of global energy-related CO2 emissions. 80 percent of the evaluation is based on objective indicators of emissions trend and emissions level. 20 percent of the index results are built upon national and international climate policy assessments by more than 200 experts from the respective countries.
The world’s biggest CO2 emitter China improved its performance compared to the previous year and climbed up to rank 46. After a period with extremely high emissions growth rates, recent developments indicate a slower growth of CO2 emissions and a decoupling of CO2 growth and GDP growth.
Global Carbon Project: In 2012, global CO2 emissions were dominated by emission from China (27%), the USA (14%), the EU (28 member states; 10%) and India (6%). Growth rates of these countries from 2011 to 2012 were 5.9% for China, −3.7% for the USA, −1.3% for the EU28, and 7.7% for India. The per-capita CO2 emissions in 2012 were 1.4 tC person-1 yr-1 for the globe, and 4.4, 1.9, 1.9 and 0.5 tonnes of C person-1 yr-1 for the USA, the EU, China, and India, respectively
WMO: – The amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere reached a new record high in 2012, continuing an upward and accelerating trend which is driving climate change and will shape the future of our planet for hundreds and thousands of years.
The World Meteorological Organization’s annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin shows that between 1990 and 2012 there was a 32% increase in radiative forcing – the warming effect on our climate – because of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other heat-trapping long-lived gases such as methane and nitrous oxide. Carbon dioxide, mainly from fossil fuel-related emissions, accounted for 80% of this increase. The atmospheric increase of CO2 from 2011 to 2012 was higher than its average growth rate over the past ten years, according to the Greenhouse Gas Bulletin.
Since the start of the industrial era in 1750, the global average concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased by 41%, methane by 160% and nitrous oxide by 20%.
What is happening in the atmosphere is one part of a much wider picture. Only about half of the CO2 emitted by human activities remains in the atmosphere, with the rest being absorbed in the biosphere and in the oceans.
Guardian: The past decade has seen a transformation in clean energy – the price of solar panels has fallen by 80% and wind turbines have become six times more powerful, but drilling has also changed just as completely.
Excited by anything that looks like growth policymakers are left promoting two entirely different solutions to the world’s energy needs, which happen to sit very poorly together. From the tar sands of Canada to deep-water drilling new technologies and historically high oil and gas prices across most of the world have emboldened the oil and gas industry to enter regions previously given up on, or never exploited.
PBL: Actual global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) reached a new record of 34.5 billion tonnes in 2012. Yet, the increase in global CO2 emissions in that year slowed down to 1.1% , which was less than half the average annual increase of 2.9% over the last decade. This is remarkable, as the global economy grew by 3.5%. This development signals a shift towards less fossil-fuel-intensive activities, more use of renewable energy and increased energy saving. Increases in fossil-fuel consumption in 2012 were 2.2% for natural gas, 0.9% for oil products, and 0.6% for coal.
US EPA: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today proposed Clean Air Act standards to cut carbon pollution from new power plants in order to combat climate change and improve public health. In addition, EPA has initiated broad-based outreach and direct engagement with state, tribal, and local governments, industry and labor leaders, non-profits, and others to establish carbon pollution standards for existing power plants and build on state efforts to move toward a cleaner power sector.
Today’s proposal achieves the first milestone outlined in President Obama’s June 25 Memorandum to EPA on “Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards,” a major part of the President’s Climate Action Plan. more
“Climate change is one of the most significant public health challenges of our time. By taking commonsense action to limit carbon pollution from new power plants, we can slow the effects of climate change and fulfill our obligation to ensure a safe and healthy environment for our children,” EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy said. “These standards will also spark the innovation we need to build the next generation of power plants, helping grow a more sustainable clean energy economy.”
The Advocate: Daliuta in Shaanxi province sits on top of the world’s biggest underground coal mine, which requires millions of liters of water a day for extracting, washing and processing the fuel. The town is the epicenter of a looming collision between China’s increasingly scarce supplies of water and its plan to power economic growth with coal.
“Water shortages will severely limit thermal power capacity additions,” said Charles Yonts, head of sustainable research at brokerage CLSA Asia-Pacific Markets in Hong Kong. “You can’t reconcile targets for coal production in, say, Shanxi province and Inner Mongolia with their water targets.” read more
The Yale Forum: Global climate change is, by its very nature, a global problem.
The emission reductions in recent years in the United States are important, but truly effective solutions to climate change will require global action on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Unfortunately, while the developed world has done a reasonably good job at limiting the growth of emissions (and reducing them in recent years), this modest progress has been more than offset by the dramatic growth in emissions from China and, to a lesser extent, India and other developing economies. Read more
eia: This report provides an initial assessment of shale oil resources and updates a prior assessment of shale gas resources issued in April 2011. It assesses 137 shale formations in 41 countries outside the United States, expanding on the 69 shale formations within 32 countries considered in the prior report. Read more
Finacial Times: World has 10 years of shale oil, reports US
Scripps Institution of Oceanography: A daily record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego
The Pliocene is the geologic era between five million and three million years ago. Scientists have come to regard it as the most recent period in history when the atmosphere’s heat-trapping ability was as it is now and thus as our guide for things to come.
Recent estimates suggest CO2 levels reached as much as 415 parts per million (ppm) during the Pliocene. With that came global average temperatures that eventually reached 3 or 4 degrees C (5.4-7.2 degrees F) higher than today’s and as much as 10 degrees C (18 degrees F) warmer at the poles. Sea level ranged between five and 40 meters (16 to 131 feet) higher than today.
The Mauna Loa carbon dioxide (CO2) record, also known as the “Keeling Curve,” is the world’s longest unbroken record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. This record, from the NOAA-operated Mauna Loa Observatory, near the top of Mauna Loa on the big island of Hawaii, shows that carbon dioxide has been increasing steadily from values around 317 parts per million (ppm) when Charles D. Keeling began measurements in 1958, to over 390 ppm today.
Progress towards clean energy has stalled, IEA says
Today, the International Energy Agency (IEA) released Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013
Stark messages emerge:
* Progress has not been fast enough; the world is not on track to realize the interim 2020 targets in the ETP 2DS.
* The global energy supply is not getting cleaner. Coal technologies continue to dominate growth in power generation, and the dependence on coal for economic growth is particularly strong in emerging economies.
* Large market failures are preventing the adoption of clean energy solutions.
* Considerable energy efficiency potential remains untapped.
* Policies need to better address the energy system as a whole.
* Energy-related research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs to accelerate.
* More effort is needed in industry, buildings, and systems integration.
* Public investments in energy RD&D must at least triple; the energy share of research budgets remains low.
* The poor quality and availability of data are serious constraints in tracking and assessing progress.
In addition, the ESCII data shows that the carbon intensity of the global energy supply has barely changed in 20 years. The amount of carbon dioxide emitted for each unit of energy supplied has fallen by less than 1% since 1990, largely because coal technologies continue to dominate growth in power generation.
Guardian: Clean energy progress too slow to limit global warming, warns IEA.
With governments failing to promote green energy, top scientists say the drive to keep temperature rise below 2C has stalled
Guardian: We have far more oil, coal and gas than we can safely burn. For all the millions of words written about climate change, the challenge really comes down to this: fuel is enormously useful, massively valuable and hugely important geopolitically, but tackling climate change means leaving most of it in the ground – by choice. Although we often hear more about green technology, consumption levels or population growth, leaving fuel in the ground is what it all boils down to.
How many gigatons of Co2:
– have been relased to day ?
-more can be “safely” released ?
-are left to release ?
Greenpeace: The world is quickly reaching a point of no return for preventing the worst impacts of climate change. Continuing on the current course will make it difficult, if not impossible, to prevent the widespread and catastrophic impacts of climate change. The costs will be substantial: billions spent to deal with the destruction of extreme weather events, untold human suffering and the deaths of tens of millions from the impacts by as soon as 2030.
Report: Point of No Return: The Point of No Return highlights the hypocrisy of governments. They have promised to keep warming under 2°C. Yet they are promoting projects that will push warming past 3.5° and 4° and likely to 6°. A frightening future. More
Guardian: An explosion of car use has made fast-growing Asian cities the epicentre of global air pollution and become, along with obesity, the world’s fastest growing cause of death according to a major study of global diseases.
In 2010, more than 2.1m people in Asia died prematurely from air pollution, mostly from the minute particles of diesel soot and gasses emitted from cars and lorries. Other causes of air pollution include construction and industry. Of these deaths, says the study published in The Lancet, 1.2 million were in east Asia and China, and 712,000 in south Asia, including India. More
AlertNet: More than 190 countries are meeting in Doha, Qatar, from Nov. 26 to Dec. 7 to make progress on a new deal to fight climate change, due to be agreed by 2015 and come into force in 2020. The current emissions-cutting pact, the Kyoto Protocol, commits most developed states to binding targets for cutting emissions but expires at the end of this year. It may be extended for a period of five or eight years, but several industrialised countries have already said they will not sign up to further emission cuts. Following are the negotiating positions of the some of the biggest greenhouse gas emitters ahead of the U.N. meeting: Continue AlertNet
WMO: The amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere reached a new record high in 2011, according to the World Meteorological Organization. Between 1990 and 2011 there was a 30% increase in radiative forcing – the warming effect on our climate – because of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other heat-trapping long-lived gases.
Since the industrial revolution, about 375 billion tonnes of carbon have been emitted by humans into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2). Atmospheric measurements show that about half of this CO2 remains in the atmosphere and that, so far, the ocean and terrestrial sinks have steadily increased.
World Bank: The report, reviewed by some of the world’s top scientists, is being released ahead of the next comprehensive studies by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2013/14, and follows the Bank’s own Strategic Framework for Development and Climate Change in 2008 and the World Development Report on climate change in 2010. “Turn Down the Heat” combines a synthesis of recent scientific literature with new analysis of likely impacts and risks, focusing on developing countries. It chronicles already observed climate change and impacts, such as heat waves and other extreme events, and offers projections for the 21st century for droughts, heat waves, sea level rise, food, water, ecosystems and human health.
Guardian: All nations will suffer effects of climate change, warns World Bank.
“We will never end poverty if we don’t tackle climate change. It is one of the single biggest challenges to social justice today,” Kim told reporters on a conference call on Friday.
Guardian: The slow rate of emissions cuts in major economies has put the world on track for “at least six degrees of warming” by the end of the century, analysts will warn today.
New research by consultancy giant PwC finds an unprecedented 5.1 per cent annual cut in global emissions per unit of GDP, known as carbon intensity, is needed through to 2050 if the world is to avoid the worst effects of climate change and meet an internationally agreed target of limiting average temperature increases to just two degrees above pre-industrial levels. Such deep reductions in carbon intensity would be over six times greater than the 0.8 per cent average annual cuts achieved since 2000.
Are the world’s financial markets carrying a carbon bubble?
* Already in 2011, the world has used over a third of its 50-year carbon budget of 886GtCO2, leaving 565GtCO2
* All of the proven reserves owned by private and public companies and governments are equivalent to 2,795 GtCO2
* Fossil fuel reserves owned by the top 100 listed coal and top 100 listed oil and gas companies represent total emissions of 745GtCO2
* Only 20% of the total reserves can be burned unabated, leaving up to 80% of assets technically unburnable
Guardian: Figures show gas flaring among major oil countries contributes as much to climate change as a major economy like Italy.
Gas flaring in 20 of the world’s leading oil-producing countries contributes as much to climate change as a major economy like Italy, new estimates show. While flaring has been cut by 30% since 2005, $50bn worth of gas is still wasted annually, the World Bank said on Wednesday.
Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) increased by 3% last year, reaching an all-time high of 34 billion tonnes in 2011. In China, average per capita CO2 emissions increased by 9% to 7.2 tonnes CO2. This is similar to per capita emissions in the European Union. Continue
Publication: Trends in global CO2 emissions; 2012 Report
We compile the CO2 emission inventories for China and its 30 provinces for the period 1997–2010. However, CO2 emissions calculated on the basis of the two publicly available official energy data sets differ by 1.4 gigatonnes for 2010. The figure is equivalent to Japan’s annual CO2 emissions, the world’s fourth largest emitter, with 5% of the global total. Differences in reported coal consumption in coal washing and manufacturing are the main contributors to the discrepancy in official energy statistics. This paper presents an initial step to share and validate data and discuss methodologies in full transparency towards better energy and emission data for China.
The gigatonne gap in China’s carbon dioxide inventories
Dabo Guan, Zhu Liu, Yong Geng, Sören Lindner & Klaus Hubacek
Guardian: Climate change rate could be faster than thought, study suggests. Data indicate China’s carbon emissions could be 20% higher, prompting fears Earth is warming at a much faster rate
EEA: Greenhouse gas emissions increased in 2010, as a result of both economic recovery in many countries after the 2009 recession and a colder winter. Nonetheless, emissions growth was somewhat contained by continued strong growth in renewable energy sources. These figures from the greenhouse gas inventory published by the European Environment Agency (EEA) today confirm earlier EEA estimates. Continue
IEA: Global carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel combustion reached a record high of 31.6 gigatonnes (Gt) in 2011, according to preliminary estimates from the International Energy Agency (IEA). This represents an increase of 1.0 Gt on 2010, or 3.2%. Coal accounted for 45% of total energy-related CO2 emissions in 2011, followed by oil (35%) and natural gas (20%). More
TerraDaily: It’s a message no one wants to hear: To slow down global warming, we’ll either have to put the brakes on economic growth or transform the way the world’s economies work. That’s the implication of an innovative University of Michigan study examining the evolution of atmospheric CO2, the most likely cause of global climate change. Continue
Climate change and the world economy: short-run determinants of atmospheric CO2
José A. TapiaGranadosa, Edward L. Ionidesb, Óscar Carpinteroc,
Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 21, August 2012, Pages 50–62
A 50 percent reduction in meat consumption and emissions is needed
Woods Hole Research Center: Meat consumption in the developed world needs to be cut by 50 percent per person by 2050, and emissions in all sectors – industrial and agricultural – need to be reduced by 50 percent if we are to meet the most aggressive strategy, set out by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to reduce the most potent of greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N2O).
The findings are results of a study by Dr. Eric Davidson and are published today in IOP Publishing’s Environmental Research Letters. Dr. Davidson, who is President and a Senior Scientist at the Woods Hold Research Center in Massachusetts, demonstrates the magnitude of changes needed to stabilize N2O concentrations in the atmosphere.
The main sources of N2O in the atmosphere are due to the spreading of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers onto agricultural soils and the use and storage of livestock manure. The nitrogen contained in fertilizers and manure is broken down by microbes that live in the soil and released into the atmosphere as N2O. In order to reduce emissions, it will be necessary to apply certain changes to the food production process.
N2O is the third highest contributor to climate change behind carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4); however, it poses a greater challenge for mitigation since nitrogen is an essential element for food production. It is also the most potent of these three greenhouse gases, as it is a much better absorber of infrared radiation. But total anthropogenic emissions are about 6 million metric tons of nitrogen as N2O, compared to 10 billion metric tons of carbon as CO2. Continue
Representative concentration pathways and mitigation scenarios for nitrous oxide
Received 18 februar 2012, accepted for publication 12 marts 2012
Published 12 april 2012
EPA: The Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks tracks the national trend in greenhouse gas emissions and removals back to 1990. The report contains total U.S. emissions by source, economic sector and greenhouse gas. EPA uses national energy data, data on national agricultural activities, and other national statistics to provide a comprehensive accounting of total GHG emissions for all man-made sources in the United States. EPA also collects greenhouse gas emissions data from individual facilities and suppliers of certain fossil fuels and industrial gases through the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. The key findings of the 1990-2010 US Inventory include:
In 2010, U.S. greenhouse gas emissions totaled 6,821.8 million metric tons CO2 Eq.
U.S. emissions rose by 3.2% from 2009 to 2010. This increase was primarily due to an increase in economic output resulting in an increase in energy consumption across all sectors and much warmer summer conditions resulting in an increase in electricity demand for air conditioning.
Since 1990, U.S. greenhouse gas emissions have increased by 10.5%.
Country sizes show the carbon footprint of all goods and services consumed in a nation, including imports and excluding exports. Compared to the Emissions map, major exporter such as China shrink, while net importers such as the UK grow. Continue to Carbon Map
This website uses an animated, distorted, shaded, interactive map to help convey how different countries fit into the climate change picture – both the causes and the risks. It was created as an entry for the World Bank’s Apps for Climate competition.
Kiln combines skills from journalism, web development, data analysis, policywonkery, campaigning and graphic design to help present knowledge and ideas in a clear, fascinating and interactive way.
ESA: Satellite are seeing changes in land surfaces in high detail at northern latitudes, indicating thawing permafrost. This releases greenhouse gases into parts of the Arctic, exacerbating the effects of climate change. About half of the world’s underground organic carbon is found in northern permafrost regions. This is more than double the amount of carbon in the atmosphere in the form of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. The effects of climate change are most severe and rapid in the Arctic, causing the permafrost to thaw. When it does, it releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, exacerbating the effects of climate change. Continue
(AlertNet) – Asia Pacific could triple its carbon emissions by 2050 if it continues its unsustainable use of resources, putting an unbearable strain on ecosystems at a time of mounting concerns over climate change and food, water and energy security, a new study by the United Nations and Asian Development Bank (ADB) warns.
Asia Pacific is currently the world’s largest and most inefficient resource user. According to 2005 statistics, the region required three times the input of both renewable and non-renewable resources as the rest of the world to produce a dollar of gross domestic product (GDP), the study released Thursday said. Continue
This report—Green Growth, Resources, and Resilience—describes an evolving policy landscape characterized by a changing economic reality, rising demand for resources, increasingly apparent impacts of environmental and climate change, and increased risk and uncertainty. The report provides new insights into Asian and Pacific resource use trends and outlines key actions, including reforming economic incentives and promoting more inclusive and adaptive governance approaches, that governments can pursue to help bring economic growth strategies in closer alignment with the objective of sustainable development. It also provides examples of strategies for improving resilience to help deal with the increasing levels of risk faced by societies and economies. Continue
energy.publicdata.eu — Europe’s energy
Global carbon dioxide emissions increased by a record 5.9 per cent in 2010 following the dampening effect of the 2008-2009 Global Financial Crisis (GFC), according to scientists working with the Global Carbon Project.
The Global Carbon Project (GCP) published its annual analysis today in the journal Nature Climate Change, reporting that the impact of the GFC on emissions has been short-lived owing to strong emissions growth in emerging economies and a return to emissions growth in developed economies.
Contributions to global emissions growth in 2010 were largest from China, USA, India, the Russian Federation, and the European Union, with a continuously growing global share from emerging economies. Coal burning was at the heart of the growth in fossil fuel and cement emissions accounting for 52% of the total growth. Continue
Carbon Emissions 2009: Views of The World
(WMO) –The amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere reached a new high in 2010 since pre-industrial time and the rate of increase has accelerated, according to the World Meteorological Organization’s Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. It focussed special attention on rising nitrous oxide concentrations.
Between 1990 and 2010, according to the report, there was a 29% increase in radiative forcing – the warming effect on our climate system – from greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide accounted for 80% of this increase.
“The atmospheric burden of greenhouse gases due to human activities has yet again reached record levels since pre-industrial time,” said WMO Secretary-General Michel Jarraud. “Even if we managed to halt our greenhouse gas emissions today – and this is far from the case – they would continue to linger in the atmosphere for decades to come and so continue to affect the delicate balance of our living planet and our climate.”
“Now more than ever before, we need to understand the complex, and sometimes unexpected, interactions between greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, Earth’s biosphere and oceans. WMO will continue to collect data to further our scientific knowledge through its Global Atmosphere Watch network spanning more than 50 countries, including stations high in the Andes and Himalayas, in the remote expanses of Alaska and in the far South Pacific,” he said. Continue
Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) – the main cause of global warming – increased by 45% between 1990 and 2010, and reached an all-time high of 33 billion tonnes in 2010. Increased efficiency, nuclear energy and the growing contribution of renewable energy are not compensating for the worldwide increase in demand for power and transport, which is strongest in developing countries.
This increase took place despite emission reductions in industrialised countries during the same period. Even though different countries show widely variable emission trends, industrialised countries are likely to meet their collective Kyoto target of a 5.2% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2012 as a group, partly thanks to large emission reductions from economies in transition in the early nineties and more recent reductions due to the 2008-2009 recession. However, their share of global emissions has fallen from about two-thirds in 1990 to less than half in 2010.
Territory size shows the proportion of carbon dioxide emissions in 2000 that were directly from there.
Human use of Earth’s natural resources is making the air, oceans, freshwaters, and soils more acidic, according to a U.S. Geological Survey – University of Virginia study available online in the journal, Applied Geochemistry.
This comprehensive review, the first on this topic to date, found the mining and burning of coal, the mining and smelting of metal ores, and the use of nitrogen fertilizer are the major causes of chemical oxidation processes that generate acid in the Earth-surface environment.
These widespread activities have increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, increasing the acidity of oceans; produced acid rain that has increased the acidity of freshwater bodies and soils; produced drainage from mines that has increased the acidity of freshwater streams and groundwater; and added nitrogen to crop lands that has increased the acidity of soils.
Previous studies have linked increased acidity in oceans to damage to ocean food webs, while increased acidity in soils has the potential to affect their ability to sustain crop growth.
“We believe that this study is the first attempt to assess all of the major human activities that are making Earth more acidic,” said USGS scientist Karen Rice, who led the study. “We hope others will use this as a starting point for making scientific and management progress to preserve the atmosphere, waters, and soils that support human life.” Continue
HFC-23 emissions in western Europe are significantly underreported
Our results question the credibility of the data reported for the Kyoto Protocol
Top down verification is mandatory for a reliable realization of any GHG treat
Christoph A. Keller, Dominik Brunner, Stephan Henne, Martin K. Vollmer, Simon O’Doherty, Stefan Reimann. Evidence for under-reported western European emissions of the potent greenhouse gas HFC-23. Geophysical Research Letters, 2011; 38 (15) DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047976
ScienceDaily: Under-Reported Greenhouse Gas Statistics? Sketchy Emission Reports Revealed by Swiss Measurements